Wow !


The signal that hit most of our vision, over its’ success of being decoded, is the Wow! signal. On August 15, 1977, a strong narrow band radio signal was received by the Big Ear Radio Telescope of the Ohio State University, United States, then assigned to a SETI project (Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence). Various hypotheses have been drawn over the possibility of a natural origin that has not been completely discounted, assuming the Wow! signal to be considered the best candidate for an alien radio transmission ever received. Astronomer Jerry R. Ehman circled an alphanumeric sequence, 6EQUJ5, which represents the intensity variation of the radio signal over time, measured as unit less signal-to-noise ratio and ranging from 0 to 36, with the noise averaged over the previous few minutes. Each individual character corresponds to a sample of the signal, taken every 12 seconds. It’s strange, over how the scientists did not just think it could mean something but felt it was the utter most important subject to open up institutes and research fields that contributed to knowing the signal ratios and their rate of various other factors. In simple words, SETI wishes to explore life above us that could be benign or a threat to our existence. Prevention being better than cure may just not be for us but to other existing species that we believe in. To catch up more about this signal, its precise origin in the sky was uncertain due to the Big Ear telescope's design, which featured two feed horns, each pointing in a slightly different direction, while following Earth's rotation. The Wow! signal was detected by one of the horns but not by the other, and the data was processed in such a way that it is impossible to determine which of the two horns received the signal. Interstellar scintillation of a weaker continuous signal—similar in effect to atmospheric twinkling could be an explanation, but that would not exclude the possibility of the signal's being artificial in origin. When Ehman went through the entire system over 50 times, he said that the most likely explanation for the signal is from an extra-terrestrial civilization. The previous statement contributes to the significance of scepticism and since then several attempts were made by Ehman as well as by other astronomers to detect and identify the signal again. The signal was expected to appear three minutes apart in each of the telescope's feed horns, but that did not happen. In 1987 and 1989, Robert H. Gray searched for the event using the META array at Oak Ridge Observatory, but did not detect it. In a July 1995 test of signal detection software to be used in its upcoming Project Argus search, SETI League executive director H. Paul Shuch made several drift-scan observations of the Wow! signal's coordinates with a 12-meter radio telescope at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Green Bank, West Virginia, also achieving a null result. In 1995 and 1996, Gray again searched for the signal using the Very Large Array, which is significantly more sensitive than Big Ear. Gray and Simon Ellingsen later searched for recurrences of the event in 1999 using the 26m radio telescope at the University of Tasmania's Mount Pleasant Radio Observatory. Six 14-hour observations were made at positions in the vicinity, but nothing like the Wow! signal was detected. But in May 2015, a team of researchers using a Russian radio telescope spotted a strong radio signal coming from the vicinity of the sun like star HD 164595, which lies 94 light-years away from Earth. This could only mean that we could hope to have faith over its re-occurrence and sooner or later decode this mystery.

UFO Ice discs?

Physics causes some strange phenomena, like slowly-rotating discs of ice on a frozen river that resemble UFO saucers. But have no fear, science is here to explain away your excitement.Michigan resident Jason Robinson spotted and filmed an eerie phenomenon in the Pine River in Vestaburg, Michigan, as reported Sunday on MLive.com. Similar discs of spinning ice have been documented before—the Associated Press spotted one back in 2013, for example. While your first guess might be aliens, last year, scientists learned that physics governs these spooky plates’ behavior.Surprisingly, the physical behavior of melting ice cooling the surrounding river water—not the motion of the river itself—drives the turntable.A team of physicists from the University of Liège recreated the spinning ice scenario in miniature by putting a 3.35-inch disc of ice in a one foot-wide temperature-controlled bath. In one experiment, the ice floated on its own, and in another, the researchers controlled things a bit more by embedding a nickel bead in the ice block’s center, with a magnet above the disc to hold it in place. In both cases, the warmer the water, the faster the little disc rotated—just like the spinning ice disc in the video above. The researchers published their results in the journal Physical Review E last March.
The spinning occurs because of a quirky property of water: It’s densest at 39.2 degrees Fahrenheit. In their experiments, the scientists measured the flow of the water beneath the ice, and found that the icy disc cooled the water surrounding it. When surrounding water hit the 39.2 degree point, it sank and formed a vortex. This vortex of water whirls the ice floating atop it.
The researchers’ findings can help explain why we don’t see spinning ice in certain environments, like deep lakes and icebergs. Deep lake water is generally already 39.2 degrees, meaning there isn’t a temperature gradient to pull water downwards as it melts off ice. In the case of icebergs, meltwater simply dilutes the saltier seawater rather than creating a vortex, the researchers say.There are still some mysteries to be solved—for instance, scientists don’t know exactly why the ice forms a disc shape. They suggest two hypotheses: either smaller shards of ice gets caught in a vortex and accumulate into a larger disc, or the ice starts out more irregularly-shaped and is rounded from the spinning.
So the next time when someone shares something stating that its alien or something eerie , Ruin their day, with science !
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The Cochno Stone


Archaeologists in Glasgow, Scotland, briefly excavated and then reburied a 5,000-year-old slab of stone that contains incised swirling geometric decorations..The Cochno Stone, which measures 43 feet by 26 feet, contains swirling decorations, also called "cup and ring marks." The stone and its decorations have been known to people in the area since at least the 19th century. Decorations similar to these swirls have been found at other prehistoric sites around the world; however, the examples incised in the Cochno Stone are considered to comprise "one of the best examples" of such art in Europe, according to a statement by the University of Glasgow, which led the new study. The stone slab was fully unearthed in West Dunbartonshire by Rev. James Harvey in 1887. By 1965, the stone had been vandalized with graffiti and damaged by the elements, so a team of archaeologists buried it beneath the dirt in order to protect the artwork . This summer's two-week re-excavation allowed archaeologists to use modern-day surveying and photography techniques to better record the artwork. For instance, digital-scanning and mapping experts from the Factum Foundation used cutting-edge 3D-imaging technology to make a detailed digital record of the site, according to the university statement.
The re-excavation also revealed 19th- and 20th-century graffiti etched alongside the swirls, as well as painted lines intentionally made by an archaeologist named Ludovic Maclellan Mann, who worked at the site in 1937. Mann painted lines on the Cochno Stone to help measure the prehistoric artwork and see if there was a link to astronomical phenomena, such as eclipses.
Mann "was trying to prove that the symbols could predict eclipses and were marking movements of the sun and moon in prehistory," said Kenny Brophy, an archaeologist and senior lecturer at the University of Glasgow, in a video released by the university. He said that Mann's own data ended up disproving the archeologist's theory. The meaning of the artwork is still unknown, said Brophy, adding that the vast amount of data gathered this summer may, in time, allow archaeologists to better understand the artifact. He said that the graffiti is also of interest and will help archaeologists better understand what people who lived in the local area thought of the artwork during the 19th and 20th centuries and how they incorporated it into their lives. While archaeologists had to rebury the swirling prehistoric artwork in order to protect it, Brophy said he hopes that one day it will be possible to create an area where the rock art can be permanently revealed for both tourists and people in the local area to see. Funding will have to be obtained to build a protective area and visitors centre so that people can view the prehistoric artwork without damaging it.
"It is emotional when you have worked on a project such as this, touched it, walked on it and closely examined it, to then rebury it. But for now, that is what we have to do to protect it from the elements," Brophy said in the statement. "Perhaps in the future, this site could be turned into a major tourist attraction in Scotland, with a visitor center — who knows?"
Original article on Live Science.