9/11 (Part-1)

The 9/11 attacks were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda on the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11,2001. The attacks killed 2,996 people, injured over 6,000 others, and caused at least $10 billion in property and infrastructure damage and $3 trillion in total costs. Four passenger airliners operated by two major U.S. passenger air carriers (United Airlines and American Airlines)- all of which departed from airports on the northeastern United states bound for california- were hijacked by 19 al-Qaeda terrorists. Two of the planes, American Airlines Flight 11 and United Airlines Flight 175, were crashed into the North and South towers, respectively, of the World Trade Center complex in NY city. Within an hour and 42 minutes, both 110-story towers collapsed, with debris and the resulting fires causing partial or complete collapse of all other buildings in the World Trade Center complex, including the 47- story 7 World Trade Center tower, as well as significant damage to ten other large surrounding structures. A third plane American Airlines Flight 77, was crashed into the Pentagon (the headquarters of the United States Department of Defense) in Arlington County, Virginia, leading to a partial collapse of the building's western side. The fourth plane, United Airlines Flight 93, initially was steered toward Washington, D.C., but crashed into a filed in Stonycreek Township near Shanksville, Pennsylvania, after its passengers tried to overcome the hijackers. It was the deadliest incident for firefighters and law enforcement officers in the history of the United states, with 343 and 72 killed respectively. Suspicion for the attack quickly fell on al-Qaeda. The United States responded to the attacks by launching the War on Terror and invading Afghanistan to depose the Taliban, which had harbored al-Qaeda. Many countries strengthened their anti-terrorism legislation and expanded the powers of law enforcement and intelligence agencies to prevent terrorist attacks. Although al-Qaeda's leader, Osama bin Laden, initially denied any involvement, in 2004 he claimed responsibility for the attacks. al-Qaeda and bin Laden cited U.S support of Israel,the presence of U.S. troops in Saudi Arabia and sanctions against Iraq as motives.The destruction of the WTC and nearby infrastructure caused serious damage to the economy of Lower Manhattan and had a significant effect on global markets, closing Wall street until Sept 17 and the civilian airspace in the U.S. and Canada until Sept 13. Many closings, evacuations and cancellations followed, out of respect or fear of further attacks. Cleanup of the World Trade Centre site was completed in May 2002, and the Pentagon was repaired within a year. On November 18,2006, construction of One World Trade Center began at the WTC site. The building was officially opened on November 3,2014. Numerous memorials have been constructed, including the National September 11 memorial & museum in NY city, the Pentagon memorial in Arlington county, Virginia and the Flight 93 National Memorial in a field in Stonycreek township near Shanksville, Pennsylvania.
In bin Laden's November 2002 "Letter to America",he explicitly stated that al-Qaeda's motives for their attacks include:
Pentagon

  • U,S support of Israel
  • support for the "attacks against Muslims" in Somalia
  • support of Russian "atrocities against Muslims" in Chechnya
  • pro- American governments in the Middle East (who "acts as your agents") being against Muslim interests
  • support of Indian "oppression against Muslims" in Kashmir
  • the presence of U.S. troops in Saudi Arabia
  • the sanctions against Iraq
After the attacks, bin Laden and al-Zawahiri released additional video tapes and audio tapes, some of which repeated those reasons for the attacks. The idea for the attacks came from Khalid Sheikh Mohammed , who first presented it to Osama in 1996. After a series of meetings they started planning for this attack which was executed successfully later on. But nevertheless, words couldn't describe the horror. Further take on 9/11 can be found here.

Tabby Star

To wonder about the existence of yet another kind, enhances each of our curious minds. Expanding our thoughts out wide and open, here lies a discussion over the strangeness recently discovered. Tabby’s star (discovered by Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network (LCOGT- a private network specifically designed to continuously monitor objects in space (under Tabetha S. Boyajian)) also known as KIC 8462852 or WTF (“Where’s the flux?”) star is an F-type main sequence star located in the constellation Cygnus approximately 454 parsecs (1,480 ly) from Earth. Unusual light fluctuations of this star were discovered by scientists as a part of the Planet Hunters project, and over September 2015 presented possible data and interpretations regarding its strange behaviour. Lead to this discovery was made from data collected by Kepler space telescope (which observes changes in brightness of distant stars to detect exoplanets (extrasolar planet that orbits a star other than sun)). Now, to talk about this particular star, we need to clarify over its definition for better understanding.  Stellar classification involves classification of stars based on their spectral characteristics. Process includes electromagnetic radiation from the star, analysed by splitting it with a prism or grating exhibiting colours with absorption lines. Most stars are classified over their results of ionization states, for example; Morgan-Keenan system using the letters O, F, G, K and M, a sequence from hottest (O) to the coolest (M), while (D) for white dwarfs and (C) for carbon class (stars). This system is based on luminosity, width of lines from spectrum, vary with density of the atmosphere and their sizes. Tabby’s star is F-type main-sequence, this kind involves hydrogen fusing star of F type and luminosity class V. These stars have, 1.0 to 1.4 times the mass of Sun and temperatures between 6,000 K and 7,600 K. Due to these temperatures, they give a yellow-white hue. F-type main-sequence dwarf stars, i.e. those standard stars that have remained unchanged over years and can be used to define the system, however, not all of these have survived to this day as per their standards and classification. Tabby’s star is also known as “YSO dippers”, a category that includes stars that have different dimming patterns due to their changes in behaving according to their sequential pattern. This star got its name “Tabby” from Tabetha S. Boyajian, who was involved in the study of its initial discovery.  Along with the above information, four major hypotheses were proposed and now left to be considered, they are; for starters, this star could have planets or materials orbiting the star either blocking it or data that involves giant planets with large ring structures undergoing late heavy bombardment, second possible study suggested the star could be at an age younger than its speed and position hence may have coalescing material around it, Planetary debris field explanation and cloud of disintegrating comets that could either send out wrong data over the disturbances of the infrared signals or that these comets could block over the data as third, an artificial megastructure thesis that served as their fourth major theory proposed that the objects eclipsing the star could be parts of a megastructure made by an alien civilization,  such as a Dyson swarm (hypothetical structure to divert the light energy of the star to their own needs). Either way, the SETI Institute's initial radio reconnaissance of KIC 8462852, found no evidence of technology-related radio signals from the star. This topic catches our attention because the final theory has been given the chances that it may or may not deserve once again using various methods, such as difference in wavelength method, to understand the situation of this star and plenty other microscopes that could read the details of this star more accurately striking towards the betterment of knowledge upon this anomalous star. For this research continues over Boyajian who believes strongly over the “comets” as the issue, while stopping others from having to believe any other. Even though this research continues over an USD of 100$ under Kickstarter campaign, she believes that "this project is the ultimate opportunity to help discover something new”, leaving behind hope for us to have her break her inhibitions over the alien megastructure and other serious issues looked over by SETI and NASA

Schrödinger's Cat

A life-altering idea, that contributed to many thoughtful insights, one among those many involve the Schrodinger’s cat paradox. Placing a cat, a flask of poison and a radioactive source (device with a vial of hydrocyanic acid, very less in quantity) in a box which is left sealed. If an internal monitor detects radioactivity (i.e., a single atom decaying), then the flask is shattered by a hammer, releasing the poison within the sealed box, making observations while the box was closed.
The Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics, in the 1920s’, implied that after a while, the cat is “simultaneously” dead as well as alive. In 1935 Sheldon Schrodinger corrected this problem by stating that this paradox states the probability of the possibility over the cat could be seen either dead or alive, but not both together at the same time, posing question of when exactly quantum superposition ends and in reality collapses into one possibility or the other. To further illustrate, Schrödinger described how one could, in principle, create a superposition in a large-scale system by making it dependent on a quantum particle that was in a superposition. He proposed a scenario with a cat in a locked steel chamber, wherein the cat's life or death depended on the state of a radioactive atom, whether it had decayed and emitted radiation or not. According to Schrödinger, the Copenhagen interpretation implies that the cat remains both alive and dead until the state is observed. Schrödinger did not wish to promote the idea of dead-and-alive cats as a serious possibility; on the contrary, he intended the example to illustrate the absurdity of the existing view of quantum mechanics. However, since Schrödinger's time, other interpretations of the mathematics of quantum mechanics have been advanced by physicists, some of which regard the "alive and dead" cat superposition as quite real. For example, considering the states that a smaller particle could collapse into one another having either the states of both or none, this paradox has brought its value over each of our lives. Einstein and Schrodinger over time exchanged letters pursuing over these thoughts of bringing Schrodinger’s cat experiment to over our practical environment. He stated “…Nobody really doubts that the presence or absence of the cat is something independent of the act of observation”.
Infact, some of the other observations state that no observer can be in a mixture of state, yet the cat could possibly be, rising questions of the sort, if the cat is required to be an observer, or does its existence in a single well defined classical state require another external observer? Where each of the alternative seemed absurd. Going back to The Copenhagen interpretation, this experiment posed no riddle to Neil Bohr, as he never had in mind the observer-induced collapse of the wave. But the other scientists, explained that there could be superposition of “decayed nucleus/dead cat” and “non-decayed nucleus/alive cat” states, and that only when the box opened could define the probability that the wave function collapses into one of the two states. Yet other many world’s theories provide to give in to many other facts that the superposition could have been settled into one of the two states long before the box is opened, phrasing that the “cat observes itself” or “the environment observes the cat”. Objective collapse theories require a modification of standard quantum mechanics to allow superposition to be destroyed by the process of time evolution. This process, known as "decoherence", is among the fastest processes currently known to physics. In 1950s’ Hugh Everett proved the importance of quantum decoherence, he said “When opening the box, the observer
becomes entangled with the cat, so "observer states" corresponding to the cat's being alive and dead are formed; each observer state is entangled or linked with the cat so that the "observation of the cat's state" and the "cat's state" correspond with each other”. Max Tegmark also proposed a variant of the Schrodinger’s cat experiment, known as the quantum suicide machine to distinguish between The Copenhagen interpretation and the many-worlds. Other interpretations involve ensemble and relational; Ensemble interpretation states that superpositions are proved to be nothing but state vector applied to the statistics of many similarly prepared cat experiments, discarding the idea that a single physical system in quantum mechanics has a mathematical description that corresponds to it in any way. In Relational interpretation, every factor in the experiment are considered to be “observers”. Different observers can give different accounts of the same series of events, depending on the information they have. For eg: Before the box is opened, the cat, by nature of its being alive or dead, has information about the state of the apparatus (the atom has either decayed or not decayed); but the experimenter does not have information about the state of the box contents. In this way, the two observers simultaneously have different accounts of the situation: To the cat, the wave function of the apparatus has appeared to "collapse"; to the experimenter, the contents of the box appear to be in superposition. Not until the box is opened, and both observers have the same information about what happened, do both system states appear to "collapse" into the same definite result, a cat that is either alive or dead. So to conclude, more than a paradox, this experiment enables us to stay open minded to not one but the many of options that could serve the trick to development. The “cat states” are often being proven and applied in many fields, taking part in helping our day to day lives; Qubits (quantum computers), achieved with photons, to solve for the energy level of hydrogen atom, to deal with problems with the atomic structure of matter, wave equation and theories, quantum numbers (first three coordinates and fourth spin number), properties of wave mechanics, SQUID, piezoelectric tuning fork, beryllium ion trapped in superposed state, etc. In recent past, researchers at the Stanford PULSE Institute and the Department of Energy’s SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory have exploited this Schrodinger’s Cat behaviour to create X-ray movies of atomic motion with much more detail than ever before.

Pulsar - Neutron Star


Lighting up the sky at night, sparkling and shining as they do, stars are hot balls of glowing plasma held together by their own gravity. They crush themselves continuously with immense pressure and temperature causing gravitational friction and other fusion reactions to take place. Atoms of hydrogen fuse with helium to release enormous amount of energy in the form of gamma rays that are trapped within each of the star that we are able to see. As they try to be pushed outward, absorbed by another atom and emit radiation, such that the photons from their core leap off their surface becoming visible light photons as they lose their energy. Thus enabling our eyes to look out for those white spots brightening the darkest of our nights’ skies, returning beauty to the eyes of the beholder. This particular thesis holds its own vital role, when one considers to learn about the neutron stars. Neutron stars are the collapsed core of a large star. They are the smallest and densest stars known to exist. They result from the supernova explosion of a massive star, composed almost entirely of neutrons that are subatomic particles with no net electrical charge and mass slightly more than that of protons. These stars however collapse further by neutron degeneracy pressure explained by Pauli’s exclusion principle. If the remnant has too great a density, something which occurs in excess of an upper limit of the size of neutron stars of solar masses 2-3, it will continue collapsing thus to form the ever known black hole. Coming to our core point, pulsars are highly magnetized, rotating neutron star that emits a beam of electromagnetic radiation. Neutron stars are very dense, and have short, regular rotational periods. This produces a very precise interval between pulses that range roughly from milliseconds to seconds for an individual pulsar. The precise periods of pulsars make them very useful tools, eg: atomic clocks, extra solar planets found outside around a pulsar (PSR B1257+12). These pulsed radio waves are emitted from neutron stars are thought to be caused by particle acceleration near their magnetic poles, which need not be aligned with the rotational axis of the neutron star. Emission of electrons are caused due to large electrostatic fields near their magnetic poles as these electrons accelerated along the field lines, then causing polarized curvature radiation. High energy photons interact with low energy photons and the magnetic field for electron-positron pair production, which through electron-positron annihilation leads to further high energy photons. If the axis of rotation of the neutron star is different to the magnetic axis, external viewers will only see these beams of radiation whenever the magnetic axis point towards them during the neutron star rotation. This rotation slows down over time as electromagnetic power is emitted. When a pulsar's spin period slows down sufficiently, the radio pulsar mechanism is believed to turn off (the so-called "death line"). This turn-off seems to take place after about 10–100 million years, which means of all the neutron stars born in the 13.6 billion years of age of the universe, around 99% no longer pulsate. Therefore, periodic pulses are observed, at the same rate as the rotation of the neutron star. This theory behind its turn off and formations is still considered to be in it’s infancy, but yet to be discovered to innovate the specific thoughts over their pulsed radiations and binary systems. There are different types of pulsars: Astronomers ( Rotation-powered pulsars, Acceleration-powered pulsars, Magnetars), X-ray pulsars, Millisecond pulsars (process of accretion causing transfer of angular momentum to the neutron star to recycle it as a rotationally powered pulsar), Disrupted recycled pulsar ( 2 massive stars born close together from same cloud of gas, where the more massive star explodes leaving behind a neutron star, if the second star still remains the same then the binary system survives.
Which later has it mass sucked up by the neutron star as it slowly loses energy). More on: “recycled” and “disrupted recycled” pulsar; If the second star that were mentioned above spins the neutron star up reducing its magnetic field then the neutron star is said to be recycled as it returns to a quickly spinning state, producing supernova and hence another neutron star. If this second star fails to disrupt binary, then double neutron star binary is formed, left with no companion, turning into disrupted recycled pulsar. Of interest to the study of the state of the matter in a neutron star are the glitches observed in the rotation velocity of the neutron star. This velocity is decreasing slowly but steadily, except by sudden variations. One model put forward to explain these glitches is that they are the result of "starquakes" that adjust the crust of the neutron star. Models where the glitch is due to a decoupling of the possibly superconducting interior of the star have also been advanced. In both cases, the star's moment of inertia changes, but its angular momentum does not, resulting in a change in rotation rate.
Applications involve: Maps, Precise clocks, Probes of interstellar medium, Probes of space time, Gravitational wave detectors, etc.

Inferno- Humanity's last hope?

Dante's Inferno

Honestly, I'm that type of person who is easily manipulated by anyone or anything. An enthralling movie could easily affect me for days. I have always cherished my manipulative mind rather than execrating it ,though it caused me a great deal of wail than merriment .Ok now, We all know who Dante is, He was an Italian poet of the late middle ages. His Divine Comedy , is considered as the greatest literary work and a masterpiece of world literature. His quotes are known to be eerie and opulent. He was the major talking point in the novel Inferno by Dan Brown. Dante inspired this particular character Bertrand Zobrist, who practically plays the antagonist. He's a billionaire and a genetic engineer who tries to save the world in his own ways. He thought world's overpopulation can be a problem for the future of human race. Few of his quotes are sensational like this one,
"...consider this. It took the earth's population thousands of years-from the early dawn of man all the way to the early 1800s- to reach one billion people. Then astoundingly, it took only about a hundred years to double the population to two billion in the 1920s. After that,it took a mere fifty years for the population to double again to four billion in the 1970s. As you can imagine, we're well on track to reach eight billion very soon. Just today, the human race added another quarter-billion people to planet Earth. A quarter million! .And this happens every day- rain or shine. Currently every year we're adding the equivalent of the entire country of Germany."
Black death Plague
 It questioned the entire humanity's existence, One could easily relate this. Overpopulation is our major problem. Probably the worst of problems. Why 'over population' piqued my interest is , All the secret organisations like Illuminati, The New world Order, The consortium, Opus dei, Freemasons etc. keep mentioning this one thing over and over again, 'A new world free from poverty, disease,terrorism, government propaganda and its secrecy etc'. Its almost impossible to attain this, unless and until there is a mass genocide of Human race. Transhumanism have always been in existence, nevertheless of its notorious allegations. If we connect the dots, from Dante's Inferno to Dan Brown's novel and New world order thesis there must be a major disaster and Humanity will rise above from the ashes. We are destroying our planet. Regardless of the steps we take, we should ask ourselves, Is this enough? Aren't we supposed to panic and act fast?. Denial is a critical part of human coping mechanism. Without it , we'd all wave up terrified every morning thinking about all the ways we could die. Instead, our minds blocks out our existential fears by focusing on stresses we can handle- like getting to work on time or paying our taxes. How long we're going to deny that our planet need saving? How long until the inevitable has to happen. Our earth is beyond saving? or is there still time? We shall know soon.
 "There's a switch, if you throw it half the people on earth will die, but if you don't in a hundred years then the human race will be extinct. I let you a path, the hardest one yet, only you can finish it. You are humanity's final hope"
What's your stand?