Particle Accelerator

LHC*
A "particle accelerator" sounds like it'd be a contrivance straight from a sci-fi novel, because most of us don't really quite understand how they work. But some of us know, how The Flash got his powers from an explosion caused by the particle accelerator,and the Meta-Human thesis etc. Having mentioned all that, Particle accelerators are real, and they're used by physicists all over the world to investigate the structure of atomic particles. The largest one in existence is the Large Hadron Collider (LHC),
located under France-Swiss border near Geneva. But its not the first, In fact particle accelerators have been around since 1930s, although in smaller sizes compared to LHC.
'A particle accelerator is a machine that uses electromagnetic fields to propel charged particles to nearly light speed and to contain them in well defined beams. Large accelerators are used in particle physics as colliders, or as synchrotron light sources for the study of condensed matter physics. Smaller particle accelerators are used in wide variety of applications, including particle therapy for oncological purposes etc.' according to wikipedia.
The device can work in one of two ways, either by traveling in a loop (a circular accelerator) or in a straight line (a linear accelerator). Atoms in the LHC are spun in a 27-km (16.7-mile), long ring before smashing together, and that giant particle accelerator has the ability to collide more than a billion protons per second. Particle accelerators has scores of applications. They help us create better medicines, treat diseases like cancer and manufacture shrink wrap ,etc. The data collected by these machines is invaluable. For more info-  Particle accelerator.

Shape Memory Alloys- An Insight

To understand the importance of this topic, first we need to know it’s practical use and other applications. Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are an unique class of multi-functional materials that have the ability to recover large deformations or generate high stresses in response to thermal, mechanical and electromagnetic stimuli.They display two distinct crystal structures or phases: Martensite and Austenite. Determination of their phase depends on temperature and internal stresses (which play a part in super-elasticity). Martensite exists at lower temperatures and Austenite at higher temperatures.When a SMA is in Martensite form, the metal can be easily modified into any shape. Alloy on heating, goes through transformation from Martensite to Austenite, after which they convert themselves back to Martensite as Austenite is not stable at room temperature and systems are more stable at lower temperatures. Memory transfer temperatures can be altered by slight changes in composition and by slight changes in heat treatment. This material is a lightweight, solid-state alternative to conventional actuators such as hydraulic, pneumatic, and motor-based systems. Shape-memory alloys have applications in robotics and automotive, aerospace and biomedical industries. This article concentrates on the applications of SMAs , Research and development of shape memory alloy at NASA Glenn provides us information over its current and future progress. SMA actuators can generate motion in 1D (wires), 2D (bending of bar) or even motion in a more complex 3D (springs, honeycombs). Presently, the material most used for their development involves NiTi-based high temperature SMAs. On addition of Pt, Pd, Au, Hf and Zr have said to increase their transformation under stress free conditions, eg: NiTiPd and NiTiPt show work output and their ability to undergo repeated thermal cycling under load without undergoing permanent deformation on de-twinning stress of Martensite and resistance to dislocation slip of individual phases. SMA actuators continue to achieve steady growth in safety valves for both consumer and industrial applications. New actuator applications include a thermal interrupter for protecting lithium ion battery from uncontrollable thermal runaway. Research and development activities continue in vibration and damping principles. Employing either passive or active means are well proven but the commercialization has been slow to develop. Active tuning of resonance frequency and seismic vibration controls may find their niches in the near future. The use of super-elastic SMA components (in eyeglasses) for the nose piece (bridge) and ear pieces (temples) provide improved wearer comfort as well as great resistance to accidental damage. Smart materials and adaptive structures are now common and are used widely. Mainly their use is now concentrated over aeronautical and space structures.
Various examples include; To compensate for the use of hydraulic systems that operate most of the parts in aircraft, SMA actuators are incorporated for more efficiency and compactness, making their wings “smart” that requires only and electric current for movement. In order to expand their applications, further developments are needed to increase their reliability and stability and to address processing, testing and qualification needed for large-scale commercial application of SMA actuators.To conclude, Manufacturing products using advantages of SMAs with its memory property is also envisioned for use as car frames, engine cooling, carburetor, engines in cars and aircraft, electrical generators that utilize mechanical energy, lubrication controls and other automotive applications. Research using this particular material is carried out in various fields including robotics and material science department hence providing us with a brighter future over transformation from a destructed pattern to it’s original best form.

Fermi Paradox

Astronomers says it could take about 1,500 years before earth could have a possible alien entry. This,they argue is because of the sheer size of the Milky way and the amount of time that it will take to receive our signals and respond. Patience is a virtue, they say. Whether you're waiting in a queue or waiting to finally talk with an alien. According to recent informations, Cornell astronomers say that, due to the sheer size of the Milky way, it will take a while [about 1,500 years] before earthlings can reasonably expect to hear back from any extraterrestrials who could've picked transmissions from earth. "We haven't heard from aliens yet, as space is a big place- but that doesn't mean no one is out there. It's possible to hear any time at all, but it becomes likely we will have heard around 1,500 years from now," says astronomy student Evan Solomonides from cornell University.
Solomonides is also the Co-author of a new study that analyzes what's known as Fermi Paradox. In his work, he uses calculations to help uncover the reason that humanity  has yet to hear from any little green men (or women). The Fermi paradox named after physicist Enrico Fermi, is the apparent contradiction between the lack of evidence and high probability estimates (e.g. for those given by Drake equation) for the existence of extraterrestrial civilizations.
But Solomonides says that the Galaxy is too vast. As such, it will take a long, long time for communication to happen. "Even our mundane, typical spiral galaxy-not exceptionally large compared to other galaxies- is vast beyond imagination," he concludes. To make things clear, we know that 1 light-year is around 9.5 trillion kilometres. That is a pretty long way. But our Milky way is almost 100,000 light-years across. So we have plenty of chances and time for the Alien races to contact us, We shouldn't over rule many Whistleblower's facts who risked their lives to state the existence of extraterrestrials.

Bionic Leaf

From the science that we know, through this world that we show, using electricity, Scientists have figured out how to harness solar energy from photovoltaic cells to yield hydrogen that can be later used in fuel cells. Photosynthesis process involves solar energy converted into sugar molecules from air and water, that can feed the biotic component.
Bionic leaves are artificial leaves that have mastered the art of this process using catalyst to make sunlight split water into hydrogen and oxygen, with a bacterium engineered to convert CO2 and Hydrogen into liquid fuel. Harvard University had assigned work on this particular project but latter results proved the fact that there was no practical usage of this Hydrogen produced. The findings are published Feb. 9 in PNAS. The co-first authors are Joseph Torella, a recent PhD graduate from the HMS Department of Systems Biology, and Christopher Gagliardi, a postdoctoral fellow in the Harvard Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology. Pamela Silver, the Elliott T. and Onie H.Adams Professor of Biochemistry and Systems Biology at HMS and an author of the paper, calls the system a bionic leaf, a nod to the artificial leaf invented by the paper’s senior author, Daniel Nocera, the Patterson Rockwood Professor of Energy at Harvard University. In their new system, once the artificial leaf produces oxygen and hydrogen, the hydrogen is fed to a bacterium called Ralstonia eutropha. An enzyme takes the hydrogen back to protons and electrons, then combines them with carbon dioxide to replicate, making more cells.  Anthony Sinskey, professor of microbiology and of health sciences and technology at MIT, new pathways in the bacterium are metabolically engineered to make organic compound. The inorganic catalyst with biology (new cobalt-phosphorous alloy catalyst) provides an unprecedented platform for chemical synthesis over inorganic catalysts alone. They are now working to provide 5% efficiency on conversion of solar energy to biomass by optimizing the factors that they were dependant on. By pairing up machine and microbe, the new bionic leaves gain the best features of both. The idea is to reverse combustion so as to produce reactants in an amount huger than what we would consume. This would in particular help solve the problem of global warming. Some of the scientists even believe the fact that if we could produce enzymes used for building chemicals, it could open the door for making other natural compounds that we rely on every day. This methodology is also referred to as “artificial photosynthesis”, which involves a semiconductor wafer coated in a catalyst that could be dropped in water, to produce hydrogen gas and out of heating this zero-carbon energy system/carbon-neutral system, using clean fuel that can recycle the carbon in air, sets to play a vital role for our environment by not contributing to factors that rise global temperature or ocean acidification.
They can also produce alcohol such as isobutanol and isopropanol that boosts their efficiency up to 10%, proving to be much better than natural photosynthesis. Chemical design of these leaves that are said to be “self-healing” allows them to not leech material through solution, adding up to its advantages and therefore increasing their experimental use. For now, that these scientists rely on pulling electricity from wall, haven’t proved the same efficiency from using solar energy. Renewable sources that we depend upon, which is said to serve our future through sustainable development can be made possible with this source of energy conversion. Bionic leaves are one among many examples, under development process, that could solve problems involving destruction of our environment, hence over increasing the production and scale value, these leaves could possibly meet our commercial needs and applications.

A858

     
There are few prospects more enticing than the possibility that one has stumbled upon a genuine mystery, one that might be solved with a combination of diligence and brain power. It is the pivotal theme for legion of movies, books and TV shows especially the ones dealing with spies and detectives. The reddit community was introduced with such a mystery, a little over 5 years ago. A weird Subreddit known as ' r/A858DE45F56D9BC9 ' , which contains only strings of letters and numbers appeared on the site. To the casual eye, there wasn't much to see. The subreddit shared the same inscrutable set of numbers and letters as its moderator; the sidebar and comments provided no clarifying information. This particular mystery lacked its banal. Like one of many subreddits, which just confuses the user. But even then it seemed to serve some unknown private purpose. Its not perspicuous how the reddit community discovered A858's existence. Cryptic puzzles and group efforts to solve them are as old as internet itself. In the case of r/A858 , it languished in obscurity for the better part of a year, until an AMA (AskMeAnything) request asked for more information for which the mysterious moderator never responded. Though the request paved way for the users to form 'r/Solving_A858.
Many dedicated computer science students, amateur cryptographers and motivated enthusiasts began trying to crack the code. The initial community was small and close-knit, the creator kept the subreddit private. But that anonymity didn't last long and they made it public.
As we continue to show fervent attitude towards cracking the apparent code. But we question its purpose , what could they be? Possible explanations include, Its a team of programmers trying to find hidden talent like the famous Cicada 3301 challenge, Its a control for botnet. And countless other theories were more outlandish. Aliens. An AI. An insidious government program. Etc.
A seeming breakthrough occurred in August 2015 when certain hexadecimal chains began appearing in a forum devoted to solving r/A858.This proved to be the most indirect AMA in the history of Reddit. But the project seems to have reached an impasse of late. The original subreddit has gone private, and a message appeared saying that r/A858 "has concluded" and advising users to unsubscribe. But the faithful continue to plow through the archived posts, still seeking an ultimate answer.
The most dedicated users often had the most sophisticated theories: "For quite some time I've believed A858 to be a piece of art that uses the "digital world" as its canvas," speculated one moderator. "Hard to answer, " said another. "It's an experiment. There are several components (to put it at its crudest): the mathematical/decrypting part a social factor. I still am sure that the A858 is not only looking for very intelligent people, but is also studying behavior." One thing everyone agrees was that there is a purpose behind these posts.