Big Crunch

One of the most important and proportional hypothesis of the ultimate fate of several other universes is the Big Crunch. The Big Crunch involves metric expansion of space eventually reverses and the universe re-collapses, ultimately ending as a black hole singularity or causing a reformation of the universe starting with another big bang, which has been agreed by many cosmologists as well as astrophysicists. Ultimate fate of universe is often treated as a subject with relative conflict of interests. This term involves equal numbers to agree and disagree upon. First up, we know the Big Bang theory is a cosmological model for the universe that accounts for the fact, the universe expanded from a very high density and high temperature state, and offers a comprehensive explanation for a broad range of phenomena, including the abundance of light elements, the cosmic microwave background, large scale structure and Hubble's Law (1. Objects observed in deep space are found to have a Doppler shift (change in frequency or wave length relative to its source) interpretable as relative velocity away from Earth, 2. This Doppler shift measured velocity of galaxies receding is approximately proportional to their distance from the Earth for galaxies up to a few hundred megaparsecs away.). The universe then diminishes, where matter is reasonably consistently distributed. As temperature increases exponentially, stars would explode and vaporize, and eventually atoms and even nuclei would break apart in a reverse performance of the early stages after the Big Bang. The universe then becomes compact with minimum volume with magnified irregularities and over the final stages would collapse, where gravity and the warping of space-time will immensely depend on the direction the singularity (A gravitational singularity or space-time singularity is a location in space-time where the gravitational field of a celestial body becomes infinite in a way that does not depend on the coordinate system.) is approached by an in-falling body. This phenomenon is often chaotic and violent, where all current concepts of time, distance and direction will become meaningless.
On an amazing note, recent analyses from the WMAP satellite and the Cosmic Background Imager, seem to be confirming other recent observations indicating that the universe is in fact flat (as opposed to closed or open). These experiments have revealed hot and cold spots with a size range of approximately one degree across, which, according to current theory, would be indicative of a flat universe. Part of the above analysis includes different dimensions of universe (namely; flat, closed and open).Thus, revealing this hypothesis over its possibility of being true to the universe depending on each of their physical properties. The density of the universe, how much dark energy it contains and the so-called “equation of state” (density of dark energy in response to the expansion of the universe) also play a vital role in determining its own fate. For eg; if the geometry is preferred closed then there are two main possibilities (either gravity expands or contracts until matter in the universe (Big Crunch), depending on the amount of dark energy the universe possesses.). Bringing our understanding to an end, Big Crunch still remains a possible fate to our universe yet over another hundred billion years, and that what goes around comes around to nothing but its own start leading to yet another Big Bang.

Will Earth Survive?

What will happen to the Sun 5 billion years from now, and how will it impact the planets in our Solar System, specifically Earth?
To answer that, a team of astronomers from Belgium have set their sights on a distant star called L2 Puppis, which lies 208 light-years away and provides an accurate depiction of what might happen when our Sun turns into a red giant.
The team of astronomers from the University of Leuven in Belgium is using a star that – 5 billion years ago – could have been the Sun’s twin, to witness our Solar System’s future. And it's not looking great.
"We discovered that L2 Puppis is about 10 billion years old," said team member Ward Homan.
"Five billion years ago, the star was an almost perfect twin of our Sun as it is today, with the same mass. One-third of this mass was lost during the evolution of the star. The same [thing] will happen with our Sun in the very distant future."
To pull this observation off, the team used the European Southern Observatory’s (ESO’s) Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in Chile. One of the most powerful radio telescopes in existence which uses 66 radio antennas to create a virtual telescope that is a remarkable 16 kilometres (9 miles) in diameter.
With such a powerful telescope, the team was able to accurately study L2 Puppis, making connections between it and the inevitable fate of the Sun.
"Five billion years from now, the Sun will have grown into a red giant star, more than a hundred times larger than its current size. It will also experience an intense mass loss through a very strong stellar wind," said team member Leen Decin.
"The end product of its evolution, 7 billion years from now, will be a tiny white dwarf star. This will be about the size of the Earth, but much heavier: one teaspoon of white dwarf material weighs about 5 tonnes."
While many of us already knew that the Sun would eventually die out in a blaze of glory, this is the first time a team has been able to actually look into a telescope and see what that will look like first hand.
Also, besides the end of the Sun, one of the bigger and harder to answer questions is what will happen to the planets that orbit it, specifically this blue one we call home?
In short, no one really knows what will befall our planet itself, but it's definitely not going to be good for us or any other life on Earth.
"The fate of the Earth is still uncertain," Decin explained. "We already know that our Sun will be bigger and brighter, so that it will probably destroy any form of life on our planet."
"But will the Earth's rocky core survive the red giant phase and continue orbiting the white dwarf?"
What they do know is that planets such as Mercury and Venus will likely be eaten by the enlarged star, completely wiping them out.
Though further investigation is needed for the team to understand what will totally happen to Earth, they do have a lead.
As it turns out, there’s a rocky planet orbiting L2 Puppis at about a distance of 300 million kilometres (186 million miles) – about twice the distance between the Earth and the Sun
The team hopes to be able to study that planet in the coming months to better understand the fate of Earth and the rest of the planets in the Solar System that lie further away.

The team’s work was published in Astronomy and Astrophysics. (click for more info)
Credits : Sciencealert

Superconductivity- A New Theory

A high-temperature superconductor levitating above a magnet
An  international team of scientists have announced the discovery of new state of matter in a material that appears to be an insulator, superconductor, meta and magnet combined together, that could lead to the development of more effective high-temperature superconductors. Why does this attract each of our attention? Practical energy production involves materials and resources that usually gets worn out at higher temperatures, resulting in retreat of all the steps taken ahead. Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic flux fields occurring in certain materials when cooled below characteristic temperature. The electrical resistance of a metallic conductor decreases gradually as temperature is lowered. An electric current flowing through a loop of superconducting wire can persist indefinitely with no power source. This quantum mechanical phenomenon is characterized by Meissner effect that states, the complete ejection of magnetic field lines from the interior of the superconductor as it transitions into the superconducting state. A study was made on C60  molecules or “buckyballs” that resulted in a new type of metallic state of matter, after changing the distance between neighbouring Bucky balls by doping the material with rubidium. While superconductivity has been observed in superconductors are due to conduction of electrons forming pairs, The U.S. Department of Energy researchers believe a new theory namely, that superconductivity is based on an undiscovered state of matter. This theory was approached to as “The involvement of an additional phase, once fully understood, might open up new possibilities for achieving superconductivity at even higher temperatures in these materials.". High temperature materials are often mislead to when superconductivity has been given off as a phenomenon over a critical temperature thoroughly based on cooling. They have better perovskite and cubical structures and lattices that enhance our new technology. One tenth of our population believe in its nature to contribute to revolution in upcoming fields of technology such as nanotechnology, biotechnology, etc. The key is now in our hands, the lock in our minds, procedure to let the lock in our minds freed is how we knock out this theory into our practical world. Different labs coordinated separate experiments to zero in on whether superconductivity is based on a phase of matter other than the familiar solid, liquid or gas.
The Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource used the magneto-optical Kerr effect, Berkeley Lab's Advanced Light Source team used angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, and a second group at Berkeley Lab used time-resolved reflectivity with a pump pulse from a laser. The resulting detailed characterization of the same high-temperature superconductor (bismuth strontium calcium copper oxide) led to the theory that a separate state of matter exists at temperatures just above the superconducting state. Next, the researchers plan to explore the electronic properties of this new state of matter in a bid to discover how to extend superconductivity to room temperature. Credits to “Jahn-Teller metal” (“Jahn-Teller effect”, used in chemistry to describe how at low pressures, the geometric arrangement of molecules and ions in an electronic state can become distorted, this new state of matter allows scientists to transform an insulator, which can’t conduct electricity, into a conductor by simply applying pressure) that gave rise to questioning over this theory as it served as an unconventional metal that gave rise to new state of matter.This new state of matter will allow scientists to better understand why some materials have the potential to achieve superconductivity at a relativity high critical temperature(Tc), "high" as in -135 °C as opposed to −243.2 °C. Because superconductivity allows a material to conduct electricity without resistance, which means no heat, sound, or any other form of energy release, achieving this would revolutionise how we use and produce energy, but it’s only feasible if we can achieve it at so-called high temperatures.The new theory comes from U.S. Department of Energy researchers at Berkeley Lab, the University of California at Berkeley, and the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory at Stanford University (Palo Alto, Calif.; SLAC's original name was the Stanford Linear Accelerator Centre).

Acoustic Metamaterials


Limitations set by men, are often broken by the same set. To know more than what we have been provided with is what we need and work upon. Our world of science has taken us to a place far enough to engineer materials have properties different from its default nature. Metamaterials are materials engineered to satisfy the statement above. They derive their properties from their newly designed structures, such as their precise shape, geometry, size and orientation gives them their smart properties capable of manipulating electromagnetic waves; by blocking, absorbing, enhancing or bending waves, to attain profit over a large scale which the conventional materials fail to provide. Metamaterials have opened doors to many ideologies and theories that involve headline hitting discoveries. They consist of composite materials with small inclusions and/or intricate structuring that can average out over a wavelength. There are various types of metamaterials over changing their primary properties such as; negative index, single index, band gap, chiral, elastic, acoustic, structural, non-linear, tunable, plasmonic etc. Changes in wavelength affects fundamentals of acoustic properties of materials in general. Acoustic metamaterials are materials designed to control, direct and manipulate sound waves as these occur in gases, liquids and solids. Involves propagation of sound in materials dictated by factors such as bulk modulus and mass density, which are analogies of electromagnetic parameters, permittivity and permeability. Research over negative-index metamaterials have led to acoustic metamaterials, materials engineered to replace our current requisites. Negative-index metamaterials are materials engineered for the sole purpose of having refractive index, for an electromagnetic wave, as a negative value, over some frequency range. Artificial characteristics of acoustic metamaterials are often achieved through collective excitation of sub-wavelength (localised resonators). This article specifically gives an overview on metamaterials and its main topic of interest being acoustic metamaterials. On-going researchers have produces various applications of these; eg: construction of thin acoustic barrier in air and now being tested underwater, Sonardyne International concerns over development of metamaterials to improve underwater imaging facilities, DSTL advances this research over collecting spatial transformation technique (in acoustic domain), ‘designer’ surface plasmons (Science Vol 208,p670,2005) to understand transportation and absorption of energy through excitation of acoustic surface waves on structured substrates (work presented at Meta 2012), etc. Other work beyond treatment over acoustic involves its exploitation, for Eg: dark acoustic metamaterials as super absorbers for low-frequency sound (absorption of low frequency airborne sound at resonant frequencies ranging from 100-1000 Hz). A distributed acoustic system can be effectively described by the analogous lumped circuit model in which the behaviour of the current resembles the motion of the fluid. Based on this analogy, an acoustic metamaterial can be implemented by a two-dimensional transmission line network to realize negative refractive index and further inhomogeneous anisotropic density and compressibility. In one application, a PI/NI interface is constructed by a two-dimensional array of acoustic circuit network. An ‘eye-catching’ interest among these involve, acoustic cloaking, hypothetical device that would make objects immune to sound waves (sound-proof materials). Mainly absorbs ultrasound waves of wavelengths 40-80 Hz. Other applications of acoustic metamaterials involve; super lens, diode, double C resonators, sonic crystals, etc. Applications of metamaterials involve; antennas, absorber, seismic protection, sound filtering, etc. Researches are done over these since over a long-term by MURI (The Multidisciplinary University of Research Institute) along with other group of universities and Metamorphose, The Virtual Institute for Artificial Electromagnetic Materials and Metamaterials “Metamorphose VI AISBL” is an international association to promote artificial electromagnetic materials and metamaterials. Also, there is much more ground to investigate for the future that include various other factors, which has been left to us for discovery.

Baba Vanga


Vanga
Grandmother Vanga was a blind bulgarian mystic, clairvoyant, and herbalist, who spent most of her life in the Rupite area in the Kozhuh mountains, Bulgaria. Millions of people around the world were convinced that she possessed paranormal abilities. In her childhood, Vanga was an ordinary child with brown eyes and blonde hair. She grew up in poverty after her mother's demise. Vanga was considered intelligent for her age. Her inclinations started to show up when she herself thought out games and loved playing "healing" - she prescribed some herbs to her friends, who pretended to be ill. A turning point in her life was a tornado lifted Vanga up and threw her in a nearby field (this claim has not been verified with meteorological records from that time). She was found after a long search. Witnesses described her as very frightened, and  her eyes were covered with sand and dust, she was unable to open them because of the pain. There was money only for partial operation to heal the injuries she has sustained.

Some of the chilling predictions of Baba Vanga are as follows (Some of them which became true)

  • 9/11 Prediction. Baba Vanga predicted the terrorist attack on New York’s twin towers in 1989: “Horror, horror! The American brethren (believed to be a reference to the two ‘brother’ towers) will fall after being attacked by the steel birds (thought to be the two hijacked passenger planes). “The wolves will be howling in a bush (believed to be a reference to then US president George Bush) and innocent blood will gush.”
  • Her followers believe her vivid description of a “huge wave” that would descend on a “big coast, covering people and towns and (causing) everything to disappear under the water” was a reference to the 2004 tsunami and earthquake which claimed hundreds of thousands of lives across the Pacific Rim.
  • In 1980 she predicted the sinking of Russian nuclear submarine the Kursk in 2000:"At the turn of the century, in August of 1999 or 2000, Kursk will be covered with water, and the whole world will be weeping over it.”


Baba Vanga’s major prophecies from 2016 onwards:


  • 2016: “Muslims” will invade Europe, which will “cease to exist” as we know it. The ensuing campaign of destruction will last years, driving out populations and leaving the entire continent “almost empty”.
  • 2023: The Earth’s orbit will change (nobody really knows what this means).
  • 2025: The population of Europe will reach almost zero.
  • 2028: Mankind will fly to Venus, in hope of finding new sources of energy.
  • 2033: World water levels will rise as the polar ice caps melt (this is already happening).
  • 2043: Europe’s transformation into an Islamic caliphate is complete. Rome is named the capital. The world’s economy thrives under Muslim rule.
  • 2066: America will use a new climate change weapon for the first time in a bid to retake Rome and bring back Christianity.
  • 2076: Communism will return to Europe and the rest of the world.
  • 2084: Nature is reborn (nobody is really sure what this means).
  • 2100: Man-made sun illuminates the dark side of the planet (This is already in the pipeline — since 2008, scientists have been working on creating an artificial sun using nuclear fusion technology).
  • 2130: With the help of the aliens, civilizations will live underwater.
  • 2170: Major global drought.
  • 2187: Two large volcanic eruptions will be successfully stopped.
  • 2201: Temperatures drop as the sun’s thermonuclear processes slow down.
  • 2262: Planets will slowly change orbits. Mars will be threatened by a comet.
  • 2354: An accident on the artificial sun will result in more drought.
  • 2480: Two artificial suns will collide and leave the Earth in the dark.
  • 3005: A war on Mars will change the trajectory of the planet.
  • 3010: A comet will hit the moon. The Earth will be surrounded by a ring of rock and ash.
  • 3797: By this time, everything on Earth will die. However, human civilization will be advanced enough to move to a new star system.
  • 3803: A new planet is populated by little. Fewer contacts between people. Climate new planet affects the organisms of people – they mutate.
  • 3805: The war between humans for resources. More than half of people dying out.
  • 3815: The war is over.
  • 3854: The development of civilization virtually stops. People live flocks as beasts.
  • 3871: New prophet tells people about moral values, religion.
  • 3874: New prophet receives support from all segments of the population. Organized a new church.
  • 3878: Along with the Church to re-train new people forgotten sciences.
  • 4302: New cities are growing in the world. New Church encourages the development of new technology and science.
  • 4302: The development of science. Scientists discovered in the overall impact of all diseases in organism behavior.
  • 4304: Found a way to win any disease.
  • 4308: Due to mutation people at last beginning to use their brains more than 34%. Completely lost the notion of evil and hatred.
  • 4509:  Getting to Know God. The man has finally been reached such a level of development that can communicate with God.
  • 4599: People achieve immortality.
  • 4674: The development of civilization has reached its peak. The number of people living on different planets is about 340 billion. Assimilation begins with aliens.
  • 5076: A boundary universe. With it, no one knows.
  • 5078: The decision to leave the boundaries of the universe. While about 40 percent of the population is against it.
  • 5079:  End of the World.

9/11 Conspiracies(Part-2)

These theories attribute to the planning and execution of the September 11,2001, attacks against the United States to parties other than,or in addition to , al-Qaeda including that there was advance knowledge of the attacks among high-level government officials. Government investigations and independent reviews have found no evidence for the theories. Proponents of these theories claim there are inconsistencies in the official conclusions, or evidence that was either ignored or overlooked. The most prominent conspiracy theory is that the collapse of the Twin towers and 7 World Trade Center were the result of a controlled demolition rather than structural failure due to impact and fire. Another prominent belief is that the Pentagon was hit by a missile launched by elements from inside the U.S. government or that a commercial airliner was allowed to do so via an effective stand-down of the American military. Possible motives claimed by conspiracy theorists for such actions include justifying the invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq (even though the U.S. government concluded Iraq was not involved in the attacks) to advance their geostrategic interests, such as plans to construct a natural gas pipeline through Afghanistan. Other conspiracy theories revolve around authorities having advance knowledge of the attacks and deliberately ignoring or assisting the attackers.
Types of conspiracy
The most prominent conspiracy theories can be broadly divided into three main forms:
  • LIHOP("Let it happen on purpose")- suggests that key individuals within the government had at least some foreknowledge of the attacks and deliberately ignored it or actively weakened United States' defenses to ensure the hijacked flights were not intercepted. Similar allegations were made about Pearl Harbor.
  • MIHOP ("Make/Made it happen on purpose")-  that key individuals within the government planned the attacks and collaborated with, or framed, al-Qaeda in carrying them out. There is a range of opinions about how this might have been achieved.
  • Others- who reject the accepted account of  the September 11 attacks are not proposing specific theories ,but try to demonstrate that the U.S. government's account of the events is wrong. This according to them, would lead to a general call for a new official investigation into the events of September 11,2001.

Here is a list of 24 facts that cannot be debunked about 9/11.

1) Nano Thermite was found in the dust at Ground Zero. Peer reviewed in the Bentham Open Chemical Physics Journal. ‘Niels Harrit’, ‘Thermite Bentham’, “The great thermate debate” Jon Cole, ‘Iron rich spheres’ Steven Jones, ‘Limited Metallurgical Examination (FEMA C-13, Appendix C-6)’. ‘Nano Tubes’
2) 1700+ Engineers and Architects support a real independent 9/11 investigation. Richard Gage, Founder. ‘Explosive Evidence’, ‘Blueprint for Truth’, ‘AE911′, ‘Toronto Hearings’, ‘Kevin Ryan’.
3) The total collapse of WTC 7 in 6.5 seconds at free fall acceleration (NIST admits 2.25 seconds). Larry Silverstein used the term “Pull it”. Steel framed high rise buildings have NEVER totally collapsed from fire or structural damage. Builidng 7 was not hit by a plane. ‘Building 7′, ‘WTC 7′.
4) Dick Cheney was in command of NORAD on 9/11 while running war games. ‘Stand down order’. “Of course the orders still stand, have you heard anything to the contrary?”. Norman Minetta testimony. “Gave order to shootdown Flight 93.”, ‘NORAD Drills’.
5) 6 out of the 10 Commissioners believe the 9/11 Commission report was “Setup to fail” Co-Chairs Hamilton and Kean, “It was a 30 year conspiracy”, “The whitehouse has played cover up”, ‘Max Cleland resigned’, ‘John Farmer’.
6) FBI confiscated 84/85 Videos from the Pentagon. ‘Moussaoui trial’ revealed these videos. Released Pentagon Security Camera (FOIA) does not show a 757 and is clearly Missing a frame. ‘Sheraton Hotel’, “Double tree’, ‘Citgo”.
7) Osama Bin Laden was NOT wanted by the FBI for the 9/11 attacks. “No hard evidence connecting Bin Laden to 9/11.” CIA created, trained and funded “Al Qaeda/Taliban” during the Mujahideen. OBL was a CIA asset named ‘Tim Osman’. OBL Reported dead in Dec 2001 (FOX).
8)100′s of Firefighters and witness testimony to BOMBS/EXPLOSIONS ignored by the 9/11 Commission Report. 9/11 Commission Report bars 503 1st responder eyewitnesses. “Explosions in the lobby and sub levels”, ‘Firefighter explosions’, ‘Barry Jennings’, ‘William Rodriguez’.
9) 100′s of firefighters and witness testimony to MOLTEN METAL ignored by the Commission report. “Like you’re in a foundry”, “NIST’s John Gross denies the existence of Molten Metal”, ‘Swiss Cheese’, “As of 21 days after the attack, the fires were still burning and molten steel was still running.” Leslie Robertson’.
10) ’5 Dancing Israeli’s’ arrested in ‘Mossad Truck Bombs’ on 9/11 that stated “We were there to document the event.” ‘Urban Moving Systems’ front company, ‘Dominic Suter’. “$498,750 Business loan (June 2001)”. “Officer DeCarlo’, ‘Art Students’, ‘Israeli Spying’.
Check out this book by James B.Meigs
11) On September 10th, 2001. Rumsfeld reported $2.3 TRILLION missing from the Pentagon. ‘Dov Zakheim’ Pentagon Comptroller. Former VP of ‘Systems Planning Corporation’ (Flight Termination System). Signatore of PNAC document.
12) 220+ Senior Military, Intelligence Service, Law Enforcement, and Government Officials question the official story. ’9/11 Whistleblowers’, ‘Patriots for 9/11′. ‘Robert Bowman’, ‘Sibel Edmonds’, ‘Albert Stubblebine’, ‘Wesley Clark’, ‘Mark Dayton’, ‘Alan Sabrosky’, ‘Cyntha McKinney’, ‘Jesse Ventura’, ‘Kurt Sonnenfeld’. “patriotsquestion911.com”
13) Towers were built to withstand a Boeing jet(s). “I designed it for a 707 to hit it”, Leslie Robertson, WTC structural engineer. “Could probably sustain multiple impacts of jetliners”, “like a pencil puncturing screen netting” Frank De Martini, deceased Manager of WTC Construction & Project Management. “As far as a plane knocking a building over, that would not happen.” Charlie Thornton, Structural Engineer.
14) History of American False Flag attacks. ‘USS Liberty’, ‘Gulf of Tonkin’, ‘Operation Northwoods’, ‘OKC Bombing (Murrah Building)’, ’1993 WTC attacks’. ‘Patrick Clawson’. Project for the New American Century (PNAC) needed “a New Pearl Harbor”, “Rebuilding America’s Defenses”. 9/11 Achieved those goals.
15) BBC correspondent Jane Standley reported the collapse of WTC 7 (Soloman Brothers building) 20 minutes before it happened. CNN/FOX/MSNBC also had early reports. ‘BBC wtc 7′, ‘Jane Standley’, Ashleigh Banfield’.
16) “Flight 93″ debris was spread out over many miles. Cheney admits to giving the order to shootdown 93. “shot down the plane over Pennsylvania” Rumsfeld, “nothing that you could distinguish that a plane had crashed there” ‘Chris Konicki. “Not a drop of blood” Coroner Wallace Miller. “there was no plane.” Mayor Ernie Stull.
17) Bush hesitated for 441 days before starting the 911 Commission. ‘Jersey Girls’. ‘Phil Zelikow’ already wrote the outline before the commission began. Steel shipped over seas. Obstruction of justice. JFK and Pearl Harbor commissions were started within 7 days.
18) The 911 commission was given extremely limited funds. $15 million was given to investigate 9/11. (Over $60 Million was spent investigating Clintons’ affairs with Monica).
19) Bush said he watched the first plane crash into the North tower on TV before entering the classroom. “The TV was obviously on.” Was informed about the second impact while reading ‘My Pet Goat’ to the children. Remained for at least 8 more minutes while America was under “attack”.
20) The PATRIOT ACT was written before 9/11. Signed into law October 26th, 2001.
21) Marvin Bush was director of Stratasec (Securacom, ‘KuAm’) which was in charge of security of the WTC, United Airlines and Dulles International Airport. All three were breached on 9/11. ICTS was another company that provided security at the airports. ‘Wirt Walker’, ‘Ezra Harel’, ‘ICTS”, ‘WTC power downs’.
22) “Who killed John O’Neil?”. Former FBI task force agent investigating Al Qaeda/Bin Laden. Transferred by Kroll Corporation to head the security just before 9/11. John O’Neil died in the Towers. ‘Jerome Hauer’ ‘Jules Kroll’.
23) Insider trading based upon foreknowledge. ‘Put Options.’ Never identified insiders made millions. ‘United and American Airlines’ ‘Raytheon.’
24) At least 7 of the 19 listed highjackers are still alive (BBC). No video footage of 19 highjackers or passengers boarding the 4 planes. Pilots of the 4 planes never squawked the highjacking code. ‘Alive highjackers’, ‘ACARS’, ‘Pilots for 9/11 Truth’.
Irrespective of the myths and endless theories regarding 9/11 attacks, its best for us to have faith in the Government. Sometimes internet can be misleading too, but not always.

9/11 (Part-1)

The 9/11 attacks were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda on the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11,2001. The attacks killed 2,996 people, injured over 6,000 others, and caused at least $10 billion in property and infrastructure damage and $3 trillion in total costs. Four passenger airliners operated by two major U.S. passenger air carriers (United Airlines and American Airlines)- all of which departed from airports on the northeastern United states bound for california- were hijacked by 19 al-Qaeda terrorists. Two of the planes, American Airlines Flight 11 and United Airlines Flight 175, were crashed into the North and South towers, respectively, of the World Trade Center complex in NY city. Within an hour and 42 minutes, both 110-story towers collapsed, with debris and the resulting fires causing partial or complete collapse of all other buildings in the World Trade Center complex, including the 47- story 7 World Trade Center tower, as well as significant damage to ten other large surrounding structures. A third plane American Airlines Flight 77, was crashed into the Pentagon (the headquarters of the United States Department of Defense) in Arlington County, Virginia, leading to a partial collapse of the building's western side. The fourth plane, United Airlines Flight 93, initially was steered toward Washington, D.C., but crashed into a filed in Stonycreek Township near Shanksville, Pennsylvania, after its passengers tried to overcome the hijackers. It was the deadliest incident for firefighters and law enforcement officers in the history of the United states, with 343 and 72 killed respectively. Suspicion for the attack quickly fell on al-Qaeda. The United States responded to the attacks by launching the War on Terror and invading Afghanistan to depose the Taliban, which had harbored al-Qaeda. Many countries strengthened their anti-terrorism legislation and expanded the powers of law enforcement and intelligence agencies to prevent terrorist attacks. Although al-Qaeda's leader, Osama bin Laden, initially denied any involvement, in 2004 he claimed responsibility for the attacks. al-Qaeda and bin Laden cited U.S support of Israel,the presence of U.S. troops in Saudi Arabia and sanctions against Iraq as motives.The destruction of the WTC and nearby infrastructure caused serious damage to the economy of Lower Manhattan and had a significant effect on global markets, closing Wall street until Sept 17 and the civilian airspace in the U.S. and Canada until Sept 13. Many closings, evacuations and cancellations followed, out of respect or fear of further attacks. Cleanup of the World Trade Centre site was completed in May 2002, and the Pentagon was repaired within a year. On November 18,2006, construction of One World Trade Center began at the WTC site. The building was officially opened on November 3,2014. Numerous memorials have been constructed, including the National September 11 memorial & museum in NY city, the Pentagon memorial in Arlington county, Virginia and the Flight 93 National Memorial in a field in Stonycreek township near Shanksville, Pennsylvania.
In bin Laden's November 2002 "Letter to America",he explicitly stated that al-Qaeda's motives for their attacks include:
Pentagon

  • U,S support of Israel
  • support for the "attacks against Muslims" in Somalia
  • support of Russian "atrocities against Muslims" in Chechnya
  • pro- American governments in the Middle East (who "acts as your agents") being against Muslim interests
  • support of Indian "oppression against Muslims" in Kashmir
  • the presence of U.S. troops in Saudi Arabia
  • the sanctions against Iraq
After the attacks, bin Laden and al-Zawahiri released additional video tapes and audio tapes, some of which repeated those reasons for the attacks. The idea for the attacks came from Khalid Sheikh Mohammed , who first presented it to Osama in 1996. After a series of meetings they started planning for this attack which was executed successfully later on. But nevertheless, words couldn't describe the horror. Further take on 9/11 can be found here.

Tabby Star

To wonder about the existence of yet another kind, enhances each of our curious minds. Expanding our thoughts out wide and open, here lies a discussion over the strangeness recently discovered. Tabby’s star (discovered by Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network (LCOGT- a private network specifically designed to continuously monitor objects in space (under Tabetha S. Boyajian)) also known as KIC 8462852 or WTF (“Where’s the flux?”) star is an F-type main sequence star located in the constellation Cygnus approximately 454 parsecs (1,480 ly) from Earth. Unusual light fluctuations of this star were discovered by scientists as a part of the Planet Hunters project, and over September 2015 presented possible data and interpretations regarding its strange behaviour. Lead to this discovery was made from data collected by Kepler space telescope (which observes changes in brightness of distant stars to detect exoplanets (extrasolar planet that orbits a star other than sun)). Now, to talk about this particular star, we need to clarify over its definition for better understanding.  Stellar classification involves classification of stars based on their spectral characteristics. Process includes electromagnetic radiation from the star, analysed by splitting it with a prism or grating exhibiting colours with absorption lines. Most stars are classified over their results of ionization states, for example; Morgan-Keenan system using the letters O, F, G, K and M, a sequence from hottest (O) to the coolest (M), while (D) for white dwarfs and (C) for carbon class (stars). This system is based on luminosity, width of lines from spectrum, vary with density of the atmosphere and their sizes. Tabby’s star is F-type main-sequence, this kind involves hydrogen fusing star of F type and luminosity class V. These stars have, 1.0 to 1.4 times the mass of Sun and temperatures between 6,000 K and 7,600 K. Due to these temperatures, they give a yellow-white hue. F-type main-sequence dwarf stars, i.e. those standard stars that have remained unchanged over years and can be used to define the system, however, not all of these have survived to this day as per their standards and classification. Tabby’s star is also known as “YSO dippers”, a category that includes stars that have different dimming patterns due to their changes in behaving according to their sequential pattern. This star got its name “Tabby” from Tabetha S. Boyajian, who was involved in the study of its initial discovery.  Along with the above information, four major hypotheses were proposed and now left to be considered, they are; for starters, this star could have planets or materials orbiting the star either blocking it or data that involves giant planets with large ring structures undergoing late heavy bombardment, second possible study suggested the star could be at an age younger than its speed and position hence may have coalescing material around it, Planetary debris field explanation and cloud of disintegrating comets that could either send out wrong data over the disturbances of the infrared signals or that these comets could block over the data as third, an artificial megastructure thesis that served as their fourth major theory proposed that the objects eclipsing the star could be parts of a megastructure made by an alien civilization,  such as a Dyson swarm (hypothetical structure to divert the light energy of the star to their own needs). Either way, the SETI Institute's initial radio reconnaissance of KIC 8462852, found no evidence of technology-related radio signals from the star. This topic catches our attention because the final theory has been given the chances that it may or may not deserve once again using various methods, such as difference in wavelength method, to understand the situation of this star and plenty other microscopes that could read the details of this star more accurately striking towards the betterment of knowledge upon this anomalous star. For this research continues over Boyajian who believes strongly over the “comets” as the issue, while stopping others from having to believe any other. Even though this research continues over an USD of 100$ under Kickstarter campaign, she believes that "this project is the ultimate opportunity to help discover something new”, leaving behind hope for us to have her break her inhibitions over the alien megastructure and other serious issues looked over by SETI and NASA

Schrödinger's Cat

A life-altering idea, that contributed to many thoughtful insights, one among those many involve the Schrodinger’s cat paradox. Placing a cat, a flask of poison and a radioactive source (device with a vial of hydrocyanic acid, very less in quantity) in a box which is left sealed. If an internal monitor detects radioactivity (i.e., a single atom decaying), then the flask is shattered by a hammer, releasing the poison within the sealed box, making observations while the box was closed.
The Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics, in the 1920s’, implied that after a while, the cat is “simultaneously” dead as well as alive. In 1935 Sheldon Schrodinger corrected this problem by stating that this paradox states the probability of the possibility over the cat could be seen either dead or alive, but not both together at the same time, posing question of when exactly quantum superposition ends and in reality collapses into one possibility or the other. To further illustrate, Schrödinger described how one could, in principle, create a superposition in a large-scale system by making it dependent on a quantum particle that was in a superposition. He proposed a scenario with a cat in a locked steel chamber, wherein the cat's life or death depended on the state of a radioactive atom, whether it had decayed and emitted radiation or not. According to Schrödinger, the Copenhagen interpretation implies that the cat remains both alive and dead until the state is observed. Schrödinger did not wish to promote the idea of dead-and-alive cats as a serious possibility; on the contrary, he intended the example to illustrate the absurdity of the existing view of quantum mechanics. However, since Schrödinger's time, other interpretations of the mathematics of quantum mechanics have been advanced by physicists, some of which regard the "alive and dead" cat superposition as quite real. For example, considering the states that a smaller particle could collapse into one another having either the states of both or none, this paradox has brought its value over each of our lives. Einstein and Schrodinger over time exchanged letters pursuing over these thoughts of bringing Schrodinger’s cat experiment to over our practical environment. He stated “…Nobody really doubts that the presence or absence of the cat is something independent of the act of observation”.
Infact, some of the other observations state that no observer can be in a mixture of state, yet the cat could possibly be, rising questions of the sort, if the cat is required to be an observer, or does its existence in a single well defined classical state require another external observer? Where each of the alternative seemed absurd. Going back to The Copenhagen interpretation, this experiment posed no riddle to Neil Bohr, as he never had in mind the observer-induced collapse of the wave. But the other scientists, explained that there could be superposition of “decayed nucleus/dead cat” and “non-decayed nucleus/alive cat” states, and that only when the box opened could define the probability that the wave function collapses into one of the two states. Yet other many world’s theories provide to give in to many other facts that the superposition could have been settled into one of the two states long before the box is opened, phrasing that the “cat observes itself” or “the environment observes the cat”. Objective collapse theories require a modification of standard quantum mechanics to allow superposition to be destroyed by the process of time evolution. This process, known as "decoherence", is among the fastest processes currently known to physics. In 1950s’ Hugh Everett proved the importance of quantum decoherence, he said “When opening the box, the observer
becomes entangled with the cat, so "observer states" corresponding to the cat's being alive and dead are formed; each observer state is entangled or linked with the cat so that the "observation of the cat's state" and the "cat's state" correspond with each other”. Max Tegmark also proposed a variant of the Schrodinger’s cat experiment, known as the quantum suicide machine to distinguish between The Copenhagen interpretation and the many-worlds. Other interpretations involve ensemble and relational; Ensemble interpretation states that superpositions are proved to be nothing but state vector applied to the statistics of many similarly prepared cat experiments, discarding the idea that a single physical system in quantum mechanics has a mathematical description that corresponds to it in any way. In Relational interpretation, every factor in the experiment are considered to be “observers”. Different observers can give different accounts of the same series of events, depending on the information they have. For eg: Before the box is opened, the cat, by nature of its being alive or dead, has information about the state of the apparatus (the atom has either decayed or not decayed); but the experimenter does not have information about the state of the box contents. In this way, the two observers simultaneously have different accounts of the situation: To the cat, the wave function of the apparatus has appeared to "collapse"; to the experimenter, the contents of the box appear to be in superposition. Not until the box is opened, and both observers have the same information about what happened, do both system states appear to "collapse" into the same definite result, a cat that is either alive or dead. So to conclude, more than a paradox, this experiment enables us to stay open minded to not one but the many of options that could serve the trick to development. The “cat states” are often being proven and applied in many fields, taking part in helping our day to day lives; Qubits (quantum computers), achieved with photons, to solve for the energy level of hydrogen atom, to deal with problems with the atomic structure of matter, wave equation and theories, quantum numbers (first three coordinates and fourth spin number), properties of wave mechanics, SQUID, piezoelectric tuning fork, beryllium ion trapped in superposed state, etc. In recent past, researchers at the Stanford PULSE Institute and the Department of Energy’s SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory have exploited this Schrodinger’s Cat behaviour to create X-ray movies of atomic motion with much more detail than ever before.

Pulsar - Neutron Star


Lighting up the sky at night, sparkling and shining as they do, stars are hot balls of glowing plasma held together by their own gravity. They crush themselves continuously with immense pressure and temperature causing gravitational friction and other fusion reactions to take place. Atoms of hydrogen fuse with helium to release enormous amount of energy in the form of gamma rays that are trapped within each of the star that we are able to see. As they try to be pushed outward, absorbed by another atom and emit radiation, such that the photons from their core leap off their surface becoming visible light photons as they lose their energy. Thus enabling our eyes to look out for those white spots brightening the darkest of our nights’ skies, returning beauty to the eyes of the beholder. This particular thesis holds its own vital role, when one considers to learn about the neutron stars. Neutron stars are the collapsed core of a large star. They are the smallest and densest stars known to exist. They result from the supernova explosion of a massive star, composed almost entirely of neutrons that are subatomic particles with no net electrical charge and mass slightly more than that of protons. These stars however collapse further by neutron degeneracy pressure explained by Pauli’s exclusion principle. If the remnant has too great a density, something which occurs in excess of an upper limit of the size of neutron stars of solar masses 2-3, it will continue collapsing thus to form the ever known black hole. Coming to our core point, pulsars are highly magnetized, rotating neutron star that emits a beam of electromagnetic radiation. Neutron stars are very dense, and have short, regular rotational periods. This produces a very precise interval between pulses that range roughly from milliseconds to seconds for an individual pulsar. The precise periods of pulsars make them very useful tools, eg: atomic clocks, extra solar planets found outside around a pulsar (PSR B1257+12). These pulsed radio waves are emitted from neutron stars are thought to be caused by particle acceleration near their magnetic poles, which need not be aligned with the rotational axis of the neutron star. Emission of electrons are caused due to large electrostatic fields near their magnetic poles as these electrons accelerated along the field lines, then causing polarized curvature radiation. High energy photons interact with low energy photons and the magnetic field for electron-positron pair production, which through electron-positron annihilation leads to further high energy photons. If the axis of rotation of the neutron star is different to the magnetic axis, external viewers will only see these beams of radiation whenever the magnetic axis point towards them during the neutron star rotation. This rotation slows down over time as electromagnetic power is emitted. When a pulsar's spin period slows down sufficiently, the radio pulsar mechanism is believed to turn off (the so-called "death line"). This turn-off seems to take place after about 10–100 million years, which means of all the neutron stars born in the 13.6 billion years of age of the universe, around 99% no longer pulsate. Therefore, periodic pulses are observed, at the same rate as the rotation of the neutron star. This theory behind its turn off and formations is still considered to be in it’s infancy, but yet to be discovered to innovate the specific thoughts over their pulsed radiations and binary systems. There are different types of pulsars: Astronomers ( Rotation-powered pulsars, Acceleration-powered pulsars, Magnetars), X-ray pulsars, Millisecond pulsars (process of accretion causing transfer of angular momentum to the neutron star to recycle it as a rotationally powered pulsar), Disrupted recycled pulsar ( 2 massive stars born close together from same cloud of gas, where the more massive star explodes leaving behind a neutron star, if the second star still remains the same then the binary system survives.
Which later has it mass sucked up by the neutron star as it slowly loses energy). More on: “recycled” and “disrupted recycled” pulsar; If the second star that were mentioned above spins the neutron star up reducing its magnetic field then the neutron star is said to be recycled as it returns to a quickly spinning state, producing supernova and hence another neutron star. If this second star fails to disrupt binary, then double neutron star binary is formed, left with no companion, turning into disrupted recycled pulsar. Of interest to the study of the state of the matter in a neutron star are the glitches observed in the rotation velocity of the neutron star. This velocity is decreasing slowly but steadily, except by sudden variations. One model put forward to explain these glitches is that they are the result of "starquakes" that adjust the crust of the neutron star. Models where the glitch is due to a decoupling of the possibly superconducting interior of the star have also been advanced. In both cases, the star's moment of inertia changes, but its angular momentum does not, resulting in a change in rotation rate.
Applications involve: Maps, Precise clocks, Probes of interstellar medium, Probes of space time, Gravitational wave detectors, etc.

Inferno- Humanity's last hope?

Dante's Inferno

Honestly, I'm that type of person who is easily manipulated by anyone or anything. An enthralling movie could easily affect me for days. I have always cherished my manipulative mind rather than execrating it ,though it caused me a great deal of wail than merriment .Ok now, We all know who Dante is, He was an Italian poet of the late middle ages. His Divine Comedy , is considered as the greatest literary work and a masterpiece of world literature. His quotes are known to be eerie and opulent. He was the major talking point in the novel Inferno by Dan Brown. Dante inspired this particular character Bertrand Zobrist, who practically plays the antagonist. He's a billionaire and a genetic engineer who tries to save the world in his own ways. He thought world's overpopulation can be a problem for the future of human race. Few of his quotes are sensational like this one,
"...consider this. It took the earth's population thousands of years-from the early dawn of man all the way to the early 1800s- to reach one billion people. Then astoundingly, it took only about a hundred years to double the population to two billion in the 1920s. After that,it took a mere fifty years for the population to double again to four billion in the 1970s. As you can imagine, we're well on track to reach eight billion very soon. Just today, the human race added another quarter-billion people to planet Earth. A quarter million! .And this happens every day- rain or shine. Currently every year we're adding the equivalent of the entire country of Germany."
Black death Plague
 It questioned the entire humanity's existence, One could easily relate this. Overpopulation is our major problem. Probably the worst of problems. Why 'over population' piqued my interest is , All the secret organisations like Illuminati, The New world Order, The consortium, Opus dei, Freemasons etc. keep mentioning this one thing over and over again, 'A new world free from poverty, disease,terrorism, government propaganda and its secrecy etc'. Its almost impossible to attain this, unless and until there is a mass genocide of Human race. Transhumanism have always been in existence, nevertheless of its notorious allegations. If we connect the dots, from Dante's Inferno to Dan Brown's novel and New world order thesis there must be a major disaster and Humanity will rise above from the ashes. We are destroying our planet. Regardless of the steps we take, we should ask ourselves, Is this enough? Aren't we supposed to panic and act fast?. Denial is a critical part of human coping mechanism. Without it , we'd all wave up terrified every morning thinking about all the ways we could die. Instead, our minds blocks out our existential fears by focusing on stresses we can handle- like getting to work on time or paying our taxes. How long we're going to deny that our planet need saving? How long until the inevitable has to happen. Our earth is beyond saving? or is there still time? We shall know soon.
 "There's a switch, if you throw it half the people on earth will die, but if you don't in a hundred years then the human race will be extinct. I let you a path, the hardest one yet, only you can finish it. You are humanity's final hope"
What's your stand?

Particle Accelerator

LHC*
A "particle accelerator" sounds like it'd be a contrivance straight from a sci-fi novel, because most of us don't really quite understand how they work. But some of us know, how The Flash got his powers from an explosion caused by the particle accelerator,and the Meta-Human thesis etc. Having mentioned all that, Particle accelerators are real, and they're used by physicists all over the world to investigate the structure of atomic particles. The largest one in existence is the Large Hadron Collider (LHC),
located under France-Swiss border near Geneva. But its not the first, In fact particle accelerators have been around since 1930s, although in smaller sizes compared to LHC.
'A particle accelerator is a machine that uses electromagnetic fields to propel charged particles to nearly light speed and to contain them in well defined beams. Large accelerators are used in particle physics as colliders, or as synchrotron light sources for the study of condensed matter physics. Smaller particle accelerators are used in wide variety of applications, including particle therapy for oncological purposes etc.' according to wikipedia.
The device can work in one of two ways, either by traveling in a loop (a circular accelerator) or in a straight line (a linear accelerator). Atoms in the LHC are spun in a 27-km (16.7-mile), long ring before smashing together, and that giant particle accelerator has the ability to collide more than a billion protons per second. Particle accelerators has scores of applications. They help us create better medicines, treat diseases like cancer and manufacture shrink wrap ,etc. The data collected by these machines is invaluable. For more info-  Particle accelerator.

Shape Memory Alloys- An Insight

To understand the importance of this topic, first we need to know it’s practical use and other applications. Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are an unique class of multi-functional materials that have the ability to recover large deformations or generate high stresses in response to thermal, mechanical and electromagnetic stimuli.They display two distinct crystal structures or phases: Martensite and Austenite. Determination of their phase depends on temperature and internal stresses (which play a part in super-elasticity). Martensite exists at lower temperatures and Austenite at higher temperatures.When a SMA is in Martensite form, the metal can be easily modified into any shape. Alloy on heating, goes through transformation from Martensite to Austenite, after which they convert themselves back to Martensite as Austenite is not stable at room temperature and systems are more stable at lower temperatures. Memory transfer temperatures can be altered by slight changes in composition and by slight changes in heat treatment. This material is a lightweight, solid-state alternative to conventional actuators such as hydraulic, pneumatic, and motor-based systems. Shape-memory alloys have applications in robotics and automotive, aerospace and biomedical industries. This article concentrates on the applications of SMAs , Research and development of shape memory alloy at NASA Glenn provides us information over its current and future progress. SMA actuators can generate motion in 1D (wires), 2D (bending of bar) or even motion in a more complex 3D (springs, honeycombs). Presently, the material most used for their development involves NiTi-based high temperature SMAs. On addition of Pt, Pd, Au, Hf and Zr have said to increase their transformation under stress free conditions, eg: NiTiPd and NiTiPt show work output and their ability to undergo repeated thermal cycling under load without undergoing permanent deformation on de-twinning stress of Martensite and resistance to dislocation slip of individual phases. SMA actuators continue to achieve steady growth in safety valves for both consumer and industrial applications. New actuator applications include a thermal interrupter for protecting lithium ion battery from uncontrollable thermal runaway. Research and development activities continue in vibration and damping principles. Employing either passive or active means are well proven but the commercialization has been slow to develop. Active tuning of resonance frequency and seismic vibration controls may find their niches in the near future. The use of super-elastic SMA components (in eyeglasses) for the nose piece (bridge) and ear pieces (temples) provide improved wearer comfort as well as great resistance to accidental damage. Smart materials and adaptive structures are now common and are used widely. Mainly their use is now concentrated over aeronautical and space structures.
Various examples include; To compensate for the use of hydraulic systems that operate most of the parts in aircraft, SMA actuators are incorporated for more efficiency and compactness, making their wings “smart” that requires only and electric current for movement. In order to expand their applications, further developments are needed to increase their reliability and stability and to address processing, testing and qualification needed for large-scale commercial application of SMA actuators.To conclude, Manufacturing products using advantages of SMAs with its memory property is also envisioned for use as car frames, engine cooling, carburetor, engines in cars and aircraft, electrical generators that utilize mechanical energy, lubrication controls and other automotive applications. Research using this particular material is carried out in various fields including robotics and material science department hence providing us with a brighter future over transformation from a destructed pattern to it’s original best form.

Fermi Paradox

Astronomers says it could take about 1,500 years before earth could have a possible alien entry. This,they argue is because of the sheer size of the Milky way and the amount of time that it will take to receive our signals and respond. Patience is a virtue, they say. Whether you're waiting in a queue or waiting to finally talk with an alien. According to recent informations, Cornell astronomers say that, due to the sheer size of the Milky way, it will take a while [about 1,500 years] before earthlings can reasonably expect to hear back from any extraterrestrials who could've picked transmissions from earth. "We haven't heard from aliens yet, as space is a big place- but that doesn't mean no one is out there. It's possible to hear any time at all, but it becomes likely we will have heard around 1,500 years from now," says astronomy student Evan Solomonides from cornell University.
Solomonides is also the Co-author of a new study that analyzes what's known as Fermi Paradox. In his work, he uses calculations to help uncover the reason that humanity  has yet to hear from any little green men (or women). The Fermi paradox named after physicist Enrico Fermi, is the apparent contradiction between the lack of evidence and high probability estimates (e.g. for those given by Drake equation) for the existence of extraterrestrial civilizations.
But Solomonides says that the Galaxy is too vast. As such, it will take a long, long time for communication to happen. "Even our mundane, typical spiral galaxy-not exceptionally large compared to other galaxies- is vast beyond imagination," he concludes. To make things clear, we know that 1 light-year is around 9.5 trillion kilometres. That is a pretty long way. But our Milky way is almost 100,000 light-years across. So we have plenty of chances and time for the Alien races to contact us, We shouldn't over rule many Whistleblower's facts who risked their lives to state the existence of extraterrestrials.

Bionic Leaf

From the science that we know, through this world that we show, using electricity, Scientists have figured out how to harness solar energy from photovoltaic cells to yield hydrogen that can be later used in fuel cells. Photosynthesis process involves solar energy converted into sugar molecules from air and water, that can feed the biotic component.
Bionic leaves are artificial leaves that have mastered the art of this process using catalyst to make sunlight split water into hydrogen and oxygen, with a bacterium engineered to convert CO2 and Hydrogen into liquid fuel. Harvard University had assigned work on this particular project but latter results proved the fact that there was no practical usage of this Hydrogen produced. The findings are published Feb. 9 in PNAS. The co-first authors are Joseph Torella, a recent PhD graduate from the HMS Department of Systems Biology, and Christopher Gagliardi, a postdoctoral fellow in the Harvard Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology. Pamela Silver, the Elliott T. and Onie H.Adams Professor of Biochemistry and Systems Biology at HMS and an author of the paper, calls the system a bionic leaf, a nod to the artificial leaf invented by the paper’s senior author, Daniel Nocera, the Patterson Rockwood Professor of Energy at Harvard University. In their new system, once the artificial leaf produces oxygen and hydrogen, the hydrogen is fed to a bacterium called Ralstonia eutropha. An enzyme takes the hydrogen back to protons and electrons, then combines them with carbon dioxide to replicate, making more cells.  Anthony Sinskey, professor of microbiology and of health sciences and technology at MIT, new pathways in the bacterium are metabolically engineered to make organic compound. The inorganic catalyst with biology (new cobalt-phosphorous alloy catalyst) provides an unprecedented platform for chemical synthesis over inorganic catalysts alone. They are now working to provide 5% efficiency on conversion of solar energy to biomass by optimizing the factors that they were dependant on. By pairing up machine and microbe, the new bionic leaves gain the best features of both. The idea is to reverse combustion so as to produce reactants in an amount huger than what we would consume. This would in particular help solve the problem of global warming. Some of the scientists even believe the fact that if we could produce enzymes used for building chemicals, it could open the door for making other natural compounds that we rely on every day. This methodology is also referred to as “artificial photosynthesis”, which involves a semiconductor wafer coated in a catalyst that could be dropped in water, to produce hydrogen gas and out of heating this zero-carbon energy system/carbon-neutral system, using clean fuel that can recycle the carbon in air, sets to play a vital role for our environment by not contributing to factors that rise global temperature or ocean acidification.
They can also produce alcohol such as isobutanol and isopropanol that boosts their efficiency up to 10%, proving to be much better than natural photosynthesis. Chemical design of these leaves that are said to be “self-healing” allows them to not leech material through solution, adding up to its advantages and therefore increasing their experimental use. For now, that these scientists rely on pulling electricity from wall, haven’t proved the same efficiency from using solar energy. Renewable sources that we depend upon, which is said to serve our future through sustainable development can be made possible with this source of energy conversion. Bionic leaves are one among many examples, under development process, that could solve problems involving destruction of our environment, hence over increasing the production and scale value, these leaves could possibly meet our commercial needs and applications.

A858

     
There are few prospects more enticing than the possibility that one has stumbled upon a genuine mystery, one that might be solved with a combination of diligence and brain power. It is the pivotal theme for legion of movies, books and TV shows especially the ones dealing with spies and detectives. The reddit community was introduced with such a mystery, a little over 5 years ago. A weird Subreddit known as ' r/A858DE45F56D9BC9 ' , which contains only strings of letters and numbers appeared on the site. To the casual eye, there wasn't much to see. The subreddit shared the same inscrutable set of numbers and letters as its moderator; the sidebar and comments provided no clarifying information. This particular mystery lacked its banal. Like one of many subreddits, which just confuses the user. But even then it seemed to serve some unknown private purpose. Its not perspicuous how the reddit community discovered A858's existence. Cryptic puzzles and group efforts to solve them are as old as internet itself. In the case of r/A858 , it languished in obscurity for the better part of a year, until an AMA (AskMeAnything) request asked for more information for which the mysterious moderator never responded. Though the request paved way for the users to form 'r/Solving_A858.
Many dedicated computer science students, amateur cryptographers and motivated enthusiasts began trying to crack the code. The initial community was small and close-knit, the creator kept the subreddit private. But that anonymity didn't last long and they made it public.
As we continue to show fervent attitude towards cracking the apparent code. But we question its purpose , what could they be? Possible explanations include, Its a team of programmers trying to find hidden talent like the famous Cicada 3301 challenge, Its a control for botnet. And countless other theories were more outlandish. Aliens. An AI. An insidious government program. Etc.
A seeming breakthrough occurred in August 2015 when certain hexadecimal chains began appearing in a forum devoted to solving r/A858.This proved to be the most indirect AMA in the history of Reddit. But the project seems to have reached an impasse of late. The original subreddit has gone private, and a message appeared saying that r/A858 "has concluded" and advising users to unsubscribe. But the faithful continue to plow through the archived posts, still seeking an ultimate answer.
The most dedicated users often had the most sophisticated theories: "For quite some time I've believed A858 to be a piece of art that uses the "digital world" as its canvas," speculated one moderator. "Hard to answer, " said another. "It's an experiment. There are several components (to put it at its crudest): the mathematical/decrypting part a social factor. I still am sure that the A858 is not only looking for very intelligent people, but is also studying behavior." One thing everyone agrees was that there is a purpose behind these posts.

Polymeric Falcighol Derivation.

This particular hoax to a specific reality relation is assumed to be via quantum computing. Quantum mechanics involves transfer of particles that lead us to closed shell system. Closed shell system involves systems that are not connected directly to the Internet and are only accessible via a rare LAN network or accessing the system manually. Plethora of myths on this particular derivation is basically due to its non-existent evidence under practical usage, which is also said to be an ignored idea that belonged Einstein.
Einstein had discovered cosmological constant, as an addition to his theory of general relativity to "hold back gravity" and achieve a static universe, later abandoned due to Hubble’s theory of universe expansion. This constant was then assumed to be 0 by the researchers hence proving the energy density of vacuum state to be 0. Further development in this field (early 19th centuries), proved his theory on “anti-gravity” / repulsion force attributed to dark matter / energy. The formula given: c = λ/2 (1-λ/2). Where the possible probabilities of values for lambda can take us aback to the core meaning of lambda. The lambda used in this equation is also referred to as tiny lambda which has the value of 30 in Greek Number System. On solving the equation by substituting lambda value, c = -210, which gives no significance to this derivation. Polymeric Falcighol Derivation is said to be one of the many ways to access deep web. This complex algorithm has been called the "Vatican Secret Archives" of the web. An anomaly was discovered by super deep web scans in the early 2000's. Hence, there are two sides to our information; the scientific yet technical part that had evidence but lost its value and the side that proved its technicality having evidence but lost its access due to the underdeveloped computing system on a larger scale. So the conspiracy remains a question to each one of us but believing in this derivation could make a difference allowing us to access the unknown.

Quantum Computing.



Quantum Computing as we know involves computer design and features with devices that practically works on the principle of quantum physics, where the computational power has been increased beyond what is attainable through classical mechanics. These computers have been now developed on the small scale and the potential output using quantum mechanics lie far off from computers that we use on normal basis. They store data in the form of qubits. Qubits are quantum analogue of classical bits , involving Boolean logic. Advantage of this computing involves superposition of two states known to us 0 and 1 along with 0 and 1 individually , that could store more data hence enhancing the performance of basic computers that consist of on and off states only. For instance ; Solving a 64-bit encryption (coding) key today about 2 to the power of 64 operations (which takes approx. 292.5 years) vs. 64 bit quantum computer taking one operation.
These computers are built up using semiconducting devices , transistors that are expected to reach a minimum size for advancement in both speed and size storage and integrated circuits. Materials used for making QC involves quantum dots (artificial atom with electrons that are confined to 3D , involves enhancement in wireless properties , electrical fields or natural coulombic repulsions for transmission of signals at faster rate). And Quantum cellular automata which is composed of several quantum dots confined closed to each other where signals propagated down the line by a cell influences their neighbours hence using very less power. Storage of data is usually in the form of atomic quantum spins or steps. Working of these computers involve the principle of Moore’s law that states number of transistors in this highly dense integrated circuit doubles every two years (per integrated circuit). Intel then brought changes in this law , which moreover served to be more of an observation than a fact that predicted the chip performance to double every 18 months with improvement in the speed and number of transistors used. This observation then changed into interpreting Moore’s law in different forms among various companies that took up this technique which mostly described the driving force of technological and social changes, productivity and their economic growth.
The two most important factors that describe the advantages and disadvantages of quantum computing are : Quantum coherence and decoherence.
1)Quantum Coherence : From Young’s double slit experiment , proving , when two slits were made the resultant recorded on photographic plate showed multiple lines of darkness and lightness. This process was due to the interference of photons from photon beam traversing every possible trajectory on their way to the target. The ability to interfere and diffract is related to coherence of the waves produced at both slits. The waves interfere with definite phase relation between different states.
2)Quantum Decoherence : The quantum computer’s main drawback and strength relies on quantum decoherence. Coherence decays with time in this process. When these computers are not perfectly isolated and in contact with its surrounding , it can serve to be a disadvantage to this technique where the quantum behaviour might be lost , interference pattern remains unobservable delocalizing phase coherence (constant path difference and same frequency of waves ) causing entanglement. Decoherence does not produce actual collapse of waves but can only provide an explanation for the observation of their collapse and the quantum nature is lost into the environment acquiring phases from the surrounding , providing a single state. This complex technique involves calculations not only in our universe but also in other universes simultaneously which proves uncertainty principle wrong hence making calculations difficult , example ; output for 1 and 0 : ( 4 results) 1:1, 1:0 0:1 and 0:0 ( lasts until superposition drops down to single state ).
Simply put, they require that coherent states be preserved and that decoherence is managed, in order to actually perform quantum computation. Also involves cross bar switching where molecules are placed in intersection of wires for coupling and computational functions.
Google D-wave
As a result to be concluded , Quantum computing on larger scale would provide better theories on enhancement of the speed , storage and functionality of computing facilities. Brought down to nano-scale , research in this particular field has grown to play a vital role in our lives. The ability of these computers to perform multiple computations simultaneously (quantum parallelism ) serves to multi-tasking and betterment in our technology. Manipulating our physical system to smaller scale enhances their performance ,with longer life-span and resolving problems to bring about quantum computers of higher bits could make our lives convenient.
This particular topic of Quantum computing urges every astute mind to scout deep down, questioning the very basic laws of physics. These computational methods were just myths, until Quantum AI Lab (QuAIL) was initiated jointly by NASA, Universities space research Association and Google inc.
Since its start-up in 2013, QuAIL has been working with many collaborators. They're currently working on quantum processors based on superconducting electronics. D-wave, famously known as D-Wave Quantum computer is rumored to solve many byzantine problems like setting up an AI system, gene analysis for better drugs, space exploration and so on.
 -Enchantress' 

Madala Boson.

Physicists have discovered signals of new particle in the swathes of data used to confirm the existence of the Higgs boson back in 2012, and have tentatively named it the Madala Boson.

The signal was first detected in data from the 2012 Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments at CERN, and has now bee supported by repeat experiments in 2015 and 2016. Nothing's confirmed just yet, but the case is getting stronger.
The group behind the discovery, the High Energy Physics Group (HEP) from the University of the Witwatersrand in South Africa, suggest that if their 'Madala hypothesis' is correct , it could help us make sense of dark matter's place in the Universe.
Estimated to make up around 27% of all the mass and energy in the observable universe , we know dark matter exists because we can detect its gravitational force, but it doesn't appear to emit any form of light or radiation that we can observe.
And despite years of searching, no one actually knows what dark matter actually is- the closest we've gotten to figuring that out is crossing off each potential candidate one by one.
"Physics today is at a crossroads similar to the times of Einstein and the fathers of Quantum Mechanics," says lead researcher, Bruce Mellado.
"Classical physics failed to explain a number of phenomena and, as a result, it needed to be revolutionised with new concepts, such as relativity and Quantum physics , leading to the creation of what we know now as modern physics."
When the existence of the Higgs Boson was confirmed in 2012, it finally completed the Standard Model of Physics. But as completed as it now is, the Standard model can't explain the existence or behavior of dark matter- which is where the heavier Madala boson comes in (If it's real).
Medallo and his team explain that while the Higgs boson only interacts with known matter- which makes up just 4% of the mass and energy of the universe- the Madala boson appears to interact with dark matter instead.
Details about the discovery are piecemeal right now, but have been outlined in the South African Collaboration with CERN's 2015-2016 Annual report, which describes the Hypothesises Madal Boson as having a mass of around 270GeV or roughly 270 Billion eV.
To put that into perspective, the Higgs bosob has a mass of around 126GeV.
The same 2015 to 2016 experiments that strengthened the case for the Madala boson also showed indications of an even higher potential new Boson, which weighs in at a whopping 750GeV (if its real).
Science Alert- © 
Author-Ras'
We've to wait for the teams behind these discoveries to come up with more evidence and then give the rest of the physics community a chance to scrutinise them. We called Higgs Boson as 'The God Particle' and solemnized its discovery in a duly manner. Few years later, we're talking about Madala boson and possible other particles. Who knows what the future holds for us. I'll be obliged to write about them in the coming years.